Risk factors for death in children aged between 1 month to 12 years who were hospitalised for pneumonia

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Author: 
Navin A, Ramesh S, Saravanan and Vinoth

Introduction: Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Is An Important Cause Of Morbidity In The Children. On An Average, Children Below 5 Years Of Age Suffer About 5 Episodes Of Ari Per Child Per Year, Thus Accounting For About 238 Million Attacks. Consequently, Although Most Of The Attacks Are Mild And Self Limiting Episodes, Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Is Responsible For About 30-50 Percent Of Visit To Health Facilities And For About 20-40 Percentage Of Admission To Hospitals.

Methods : 140children Between The Age Of 1 Month To 12 Years, Who Were Admitted (In Patients) To The Department Of Paediatrics, Who Was Clinically And Radiologically Confirmed As Pneumonia Were Taken In This Case Control Study. Among Those Children Who Died Of Pneumonia Were Taken As Cases (20) And Child Who Got Treated For Pneumonia And Discharged Were Taken As Control(120).

Results: In This Study More Death Occurred In Children Less Than One Year Of Age 65%. Lack Of Exclusive Breast Feeding Was Observed 6 Times More Commonly Among Children Who Died Of Pneumonia Than Those Who Survived With Pneumonia. Children Partially Immunized For The Age Were 4.3 Time At Risk Of Death From Pneumonia Than Fully Immunized For Age With Pneumonia. Among Socio-Demographic, Environmental And Nutritional Variables, Partially Immunized Child Grade Iii And Iv Malnutrition Were Having Statistically Significant Association With Pneumonia Mortality. In This Study 15(75.0%) Cases Had History Of Bad Child Rearing Practice While 5(25.0%) Cases Did Not Have Any Such History. In Controls 28(23.3%) Children Had History Of Bad Child Rearing Practices And 92 (76.7%) Did Not Have. In This Study 4 (20.0%) Cases Had Diarrhoea And 16 (80.0%) Cases Did Not Have Diarrhoea. In Control Group 11 (9.2%) Children Had Diarrhoea While 109 (90.8%) Children Did Not Have Diarrhoea. It Is A Significant Risk Factor For Death Among Children With Pneumonia.

Conclusion: From This Study, The Following Risk Factors Are Significantly Associated With Mortality In Children With Pneumonia. Children Who Have Lack Of Exclusive Breast Feeding In The First 6 Months, Immunization Not Appropriate For Age, Grade 2, 3, 4 Malnutrition, Bad Child Rearing Practices, Presence Of Altered Sensorium, Chest Retraction, Grunt, Shock, Diarrhoea, Associated Infections And Congenital Heart Disease.

Page: 
61-64
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