Colon cancer is the abnormal or uncontrolled growth of new cells in the colon, characterized by cells that tend to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize the new body sites. Colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps in the colon. These mushroom-shaped growths are usually benign, but some develop into cancer over time Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is metabolized to a methyl free radical and generates hydroxyl radical or hydrogen peroxide in the presence of metal ions that may contribute to the initiation of lipid peroxidation (Dudeja et al 1990). The products of lipid peroxidation are measured to find out the amount of oxidative damage in the cancer cells.
Chlorella's multi-layered cell wall contains the polysaccharides and beta carotene which can be attributed to much of the observed anti-cancer action.
A total of 36 male wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group 4,5 and 6 were given Dimethylhydrazine 20mg/kg once a week for four weeks along with Chlorella pyerenoidosa 500mg,750mg and 1000mg/kg respectively for 16 weeks. At the end of 16 weeks, the animals were sacrified and the blood samples were sent for determination of diagnostic marker enzymes. Results showed that the TBARS are reduced in DMH treated group (Group II) compared to control (group I), standard (group III and test groups (Groups IV, V & VI). results show a significant decrese in the levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in DMH treated group II rats whereas it is almost doubled in drug treated and standard group which is comparable to the control group. Our results suggest that the anticarcinogenic effect of chlorella may be mediated by the induction of reduced glutathione because this endogenous tripeptide molecule can detoxify various carcinogeus, serve as an intracellular antioxidant and also regulated DNA and protein synthesis . This substantiates the claim that chlorella can serve as a prophylactic agent in the management of colon cancer