Background and objectives: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy as a result of severe birth asphyxia in neonates remains one of the important causes of neurological disability in children. This study identifies the neurological outcome in term neonates with Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy that appear following severe birth asphyxia and correlation of conventional umbilical cord blood parameters with APGAR score among controls and cases.
Materials and Method of study: A prospective case control study was conducted in term babies from which 60 cases of birth asphyxia and 30 cases of normal newborn delivered in Rajah Muthiah Medical college, Chidambaram over a period of 1 year. Immediately after birth, blood was drawn from clamped umbilical cord, and sent for ABG analysis and parameters like pH, PCo2, Po2, HCo3, Base excess and oxygen saturation were observed.
Results: Increased risk of low APGAR score was associated with severe birth asphyxia with decreased umbilical arterial pH. Compare to PO value, difference in PCo2 and base excess values between cases and controls was associated with increased risk of low APGAR score.
Conclusion: pH < 7, high PCO2, base excess values were significantly associated with low APGAR. Umbilical cord, PCO2, base excess are better indicators of neonatal mortality and morbidity than PO2 level.